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2019-10-09 21:04:41   来源:环球教育在线   评论:0 点击:

  (一) 初级笔译


  Part 1

  Translation from English into Chinese 1 hour 30 minutes

  Read the following two passages.

  Translate them into Chinese.

  Write you answers on this paper.

  You may use the additional paper for any rough work but you must copy your answers onto this paper.

  Passage 1

  Head injuries

  Alice was a B-plus student through her first three years at college. During the winter holidays in her senior year, while she was driving during a storm, her car ran off the road and hit a tree. Alice banged her head on the steering wheel but never lost consciousness. She was treated for bruises and discharged from the hospital within a day.

  But, back at her studies, she began to have difficulties. Suddenly her As and Bs were becoming Cs. She had trouble remembering what she'd read and was irritable and easily distracted.

  Alice was referred to a neuropsychologist for further examination. Although her IQ hadn't changed and standard neurological tests were normal, detailed neuropsychological tests showed she was having memory problems. She could still process new information, but it took longer than before and she became "overloaded" if she tried to do too much at once.

  Head injuries are often fatal, or of sufficient severity to require the hospitalization of victims. But there is a large group of people who sustain head injuries which can go undetected through ordinary medical examination. These are the people who seemingly recover from their injuries but still suffer subtle intellectual and behavioural effects that may seriously impair their ability to work and interact normally with other people. They are the victims of what experts call a "silent epidemic". Some never lost consciousness and others never even suffered a direct blow to the head, yet brain damage occurred.

  Passage 2

  My fight against junk e-mail

  Filtering junk e-mail can be a tricky game of cat and mouse, as I learned when I set out to purge my In Box.

  I received an e-mail the other day that gave me a moment's pause. "Hey cutie, how are you??" It began. "I'm so sorry about last night, click here for a SUPRIXE to make you feel better." I was suspicious for three reasons: my girlfriend never misspells like that, we had not had a row the previous night, and I was pretty sure she had not suddenly acquired an Australian e-mail address. At least one part of the message was accurate: if she ever pointed me to a website as sexy as that one, I'd be very surprised indeed.

  The cutie incident represented a setback in my war against junk e-mail. I used to get hundreds of these things a day, and some months ago, I vowed to rid my In Box permanently of every last one. What I soon learned was that most e-mail software can't eradicate the junk without throwing babies with the bath water.

  Microsoft outlook, for example, can trash any mail not sent directly to your address. But that ends up junking a lot of useful stuff such as discussions on my journalism, school alumni e-mail list. AOL can turn away mail from anyone not flagged as a friend, but part of my job is to accept correspondence from strangers-like you, dear reader.

  Part 2

  Translation from Chinese into English 1 hour 30 minutes

  Read the following two passages.

  Translate them into Chinese.

  Write you answers on this paper.

  You may use the additional paper for any rough work but you must copy your answers onto this paper.

  Passage 1





  Passage 2



  (二) 初级口译




  David: What's on today, Xiao Wang?//

  Xiao Wang: 今天我们去长城,并在那里午餐,下午回来的路上还要去看看十三陵。// 你一定听说过长城,来到北京,长城是一定要去的。// 十三陵是明朝13个皇帝和皇后的坟墓,是15世纪建造的,虽然没有长城有名,但也很值得一看。//

  David: I've read about the renowned Chinese wall. It is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, I believe. It is said to be the only man-made project on earth which is visible from a satellite. //

  Xiao Wang: 我们中国人叫它"万里长城",实际上全长6000多公里,最初建于近2500年前的战国时期。// 当时中国还不是一个统一的国家,而是分为7国。北方的几个国家修建城墙用来防御来自北方的侵犯。// 公元前221年秦始皇统一中国后将各段长城连接起来并加以延长。据历史记载大约有100万人参加过这一长达十多年的工程。

  David: Was the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty the one in whose tomb were discovered the terra-cotta warriors? //

  Xiao Wang: 是的。除了修建长城以外,他也作过不少事情。虽然他的王朝是短命的,但他对中国历史的影响却是巨大的。

  David: Imagine it was more than 2,000 years ago when there was no machinery and everything had to be done by bare hands. // Yet they managed to build a wall like this and the terra-cotta warriors, which, as many people say, have become the eighth wonder of the world. //

  Xiao Wang: 今天我们去的那段长城叫八达岭,这是保卫北京的一个战略要地,离北京约75公里。现在有了高速公路,不到两个小时就到了。// 关于长城你若有什么问题的话,不论是在路上还是到了那里随时都可以问我。//

  David: Thank you for your briefing. I'm sure our visit to the Great Wall will give me a better understanding of Chinese history and the wisdom of the Chinese people.//


  Now I'd like to move on to three possible policies, which could be developed to stem this kind of uncontrolled urbanization in developing countries.//

  The first one would be to promote a more equal land distribution. In this way, farmers would be more motivated to stay on the land. They would be able to work more land, and thus be able to feed their families more adequately. //

  The second policy would be to improve the supply of social services in the rural areas, particularly in the field of health and education.// country people often move to the city because they feel that these services are better in the city areas, and if they could compare the services and feel that there was perhaps not much difference between the two, it would be another reason for not moving.//

  A third possible policy would be to give financial assistance to agriculture, especially to the small landowners.// Now obviously the problem of uncontrolled urbanization and the consequences, which are not favorable, is a difficult problem to which there is no easy solution, but these three types of policies could help to reduce the problem, which is felt in particular in developing countries.//





  孔夫子说过,"有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎。"这次布朗先生从大洋彼岸不远千里光临我们公司,我非常高兴。// 在过去几年里我们两家公司已经建立了卓有成效的合作关系。我相信通过布朗先生的这次访问,我们的合作还会加强。//






  (三) 中级笔译


  Part 1

  Translation from English into Chinese 2 hours

  Read the following two passages.

  Translate them into Chinese.

  Write you answers on this paper.

  You may use the additional paper for any rough work but you must copy your answers onto this paper.

  Passage 1

  Artificial speech

  Because speech is the most convenient form of communication, in the future we want essentially natural conversations with computers. The primary point of contact will be a simple device that will act as our window on the world. You will simply talk to it. The device will be permanently connected to the internet and will beep relevant information up to you as it comes in.

  Just how quickly people will adapt to a voice-based internet world is uncertain. Many believe that, initially at least, we will need similar conventions for the voice to those we use at present on screen: click, back, forward, and so on. But soon you will undoubtedly be able to interact by voice with all those IT-based services you currently connect with over the Internet by means of a keyboard. This will help the Internet serve the entire population, not just techno-freaks.

  Changes like this will encompass the whole world. Because English is the language of science, it will probably remain the language in which the technology is most advanced, but most speech-recognition techniques are transferable to other languages provided there is sufficient motivation to undertake the work.

  Within ten years we will have computers that respond to goal-directed conversations, but for a computer to have a conversation that takes into account human social behaviour is probably 50 years off. We're not going to be chatting to the big screen in the living room just yet.

  There are those in the IT community who believe that current techniques will eventually hit a brick wall. Personally, I believe that incremental developments in performance are more likely. But it's true that by about 2040 or so, computer architectures will need to become highly parallel if performance is to keep increasing. Perhaps that will inspire some radically new approaches to speech understanding that will supplant the methods we're developing now.

  Small vendors engage in simple spot-market transactions, with buyers and sellers dealing face to face to trade fairly standard products whose quality is easy to verify. Lange multinational firms exchange more differentiated products, face greater difficulties in verifying quality, and must span greater separations in time and space between one part of the transaction and the other. Most economies have both types of markets. But the first is relatively more common in developing countries, the second in industrial economies.

  Developed markets- more global, more inclusive, and more integrated-offer more opportunity and choice. Underdeveloped markets, more likely in poor countries, tend to be more local and segmented. So, compared with farmers in Canada, poor farmers in Bangladesh have fewer opportunities and far fewer formal institutions (such as banks and formal courts ) to reduce their risks and increase their opportunities.

  What limits market opportunities? The transaction costs stemming from inadequate information and incomplete definition and enforcement of property rights. And barriers to entry for new participants. What increases them? Institutions that raise the returns from market exchange, reduce risk, and increase efficiency.

  Yet not all institutions promote inclusive markets. Institutional designs that evolve through historical circumstances or are directed by policy makers are not necessarily the best for all of society or for economic growth and poverty reduction. For instance, state agricultural marketing boards, instead of helping farmers, have often resulted in lower incomes for them in Africa. And institutions that once supported market transactions can outlive their usefulness, for example, privatization agencies and bank restructuring agencies. The challenge for policymakers is to shape institutional development in ways that enhance economic development.

  Part 2

  Translation from Chinese into English 2 hours

  Read the following two passages.

  Translate them into Chinese.

  Write you answers on this paper.

  You may use the additional paper for any rough work but you must copy your answers onto this paper.

  Passage 1





  Passage 2




  (四) 中级口译


  Part 1 English into Chinese


  International Cooperation Against Transnational Organized Crime

  Organized crime groups pose challenges as never before to societies everywhere. Whether involved in drug trafficking, money laundering, people smuggling or outright terrorism they operate in a sophisticated way without regard to national frontiers. The profits of crime are vast. The International Monetary Fund has stated that he aggregate size of money laundering in the world could be somewhere between two and five per cent of the world's gross domestic product.

  Putting a dollar figure on that, it is estimated that money laundering activity could now involve as much as 1.5 trillion US dollars a year, and it seems likely that half of that figure is attributable to the proceeds of drug trafficking.//

  Given that profits of this scale can be made, the temptations for people at all levels to get involved are manifest, and we must clearly understand and beak down the vicious cycle that exists between money laundering)and corruption: corruption has to be well funded to, succeed in its object of corrupting public officials and others, and that is being achieved all too often by the use of illicit assets.

  The manner in which we respond to this problem is not only a test of our concern for a safer world, but a measure of our determination to create a decent future for coning generations.//

  In the wake of the events of 11 September 2001, a war against terrorism is being pursued on various fronts. This includes a direct assault on money laundering, which is now recognized, more so than ever before, as an insidious crime which is all pervasive. It threatens the stability of our societies. It undermines our financial institutions. It challenges our national security.

  As a transnational crime, money laundering can only be combated through close cooperation among national authorities efforts by states acting alone to attack the economic power of criminal groups will not succeed if other states do not take complementary action. In the absence of a coordinated and effective international framework, all too often non-participating countries offer criminals safe havens for laundering funds.//

  And as patterns of crime develop and become mere sophisticated and profitable, we in law enforcement must be adequately resourced, fully trained, and efficiently deployed We must prosecute the organized criminals, size their assets, and disrupt their operations. The fight against money laundering will be a protracted and complex process, and we must be prepaid to play a long game. Our societies expect no less of us.

  For when we fight money laundering, we fight organized crime. When we fight money laundering, we keep drugs out playgrounds and away from our kids. We keep weapons out of the hands of terrorists. We protect small business. And we safeguard the human dignity of women and children trafficked into forced labor and prostitution. When we stop criminals from enjoying the of their illicit activity, we serve the cause of freedom and justice. For law enforcement, there is no higher calling.//

  Part 2 Chinese into English










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